menstrual cycle:- Phases of menstrual cycle in women | you must visit |

menstrual cycle

Q. What is the menstrual cycle?(menstrual cycle)

It is defined as a series of changes in the endometrium of non-pregnant females. Parallel to the menstrual cycle is an ovarian cycle which is a monthly series of events associated with maturation of an ovum. It is hormonal control and controlled by the regulation factor for the hypothalamus called gonadotropin-releasing hormone ( Gn RH).

menstrual cycle

It stimulates the anterior pituitary to realise the following hormone:-

1. Follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) which promotes maturation of ovarian follicle and secretion of estrogen leading to ovulation.

menstrual cycle

2. Luteinising hormone (LH): simulate the development of corpus luteum and secretes progestogen.

Phases of the menstrual cycle are divided into:- Proliferative phase: 10 days

Secretory phase: 14 days

Menstrual phase: 4 days

  1. Proliferation phase
menstrual cycle

It is characterized by the release of oestrogen. During this, endometrium gets proliferated and it gets renewed. In this period also, Graafian follicle is maturing and this place last ten days and is terminated when ovulation occurs and oestrogen production is inhibited.

2. Secretory phase

Immediately after ovulation, the cells lining the ovarian follicle are stimulated by LH to develop corpus luteum which future produces progesterone. Under the induction of progesterone, the endometrium becomes oedematous and secretory glands produce an increased amount of watery mucus which is also called the luteal phase. If the implantation of fertilized ovum occurs, then endometrium grows further and then the menstrual cycle is interrupted during the period of lactation. If the ovum is not fertilized the cycle enters in the next phase.

3. Menstrual phase

It is characterised by periodic discharge of 25 to 65 mo of blood, tissue fluid, mucus and epithelial cells. It is caused by a sudden reduction in oestrogen and progesterone and lasts for approximately four to five days.

During the menstrual phase, the ovarian cycle is also in operation and the primary follicle begins its development. At birth, each ovary contains 2,00,000 follicle each consisting of a primary ovum surrounded by single epithelium. Towards the ends of the menstrual phase, about 20 primary follicles develop into a secondary follicle which consists of secondary ova. The production of oestrogen by secondary follicle elevates the level of oestrogen in the blood.

Although 20 follicles begin development each cycle usually one, contains maturity and the other die out. Also, placenta which is developed during pregnancy oestrogen progesterone and gonadotropin.

4. Ovulatory phase

It is the shortest phase of the menstrual cycle. It involves rupturing of the mature graatian follicle and release of the ovum (secondary oocyte) into the pelvic cavity, usually on 14th day of the menstrual cycle. Rapid secretion of LH by the positive feedback mechanism causes the mature follicle to rupture ovulation may be accompanied by mild or severe pains in the lower abdomen.

Q. At which age menopause appears and what happens?

It’s is a period which occurs between the age group of 45 to 55 years making the end of the childbearing period. This is due to ovaries normally becomes less responsive to FSH and LH stimulation and is characterised by:-

1 The breast shrink

2. Sex organs atrophy

3. Pelvic hairs becomes spare

4. Sweating, palpitation, causing discomfort and disturbances of the normal sleep pattern.

Q. What is gametogenesis?(menstrual cycle)

The gametogenesis is the process of formation of gametes in sexually reproduction animals. The male gamete is sperm and the female gametes is ovum or egg. The gametes are formed from a primordial germ called gonads.

Q. What is spermatogenesis?

The process of formation of the male gamete (sperm) or spermatozoa from the germinal epithelium of testis is called spermatogenesis. At the one set of puberty, the hypothalamus begins secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). It iniates the significant increase in the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) which includes spermatogenesis.

There are three-phase in spermatogenesis

1. Multiplication phase

The primordial germ cells (2n) of seminiferous tubes undergo repeated mitotic divisions to produce a large number of spermatogonia. Each spermatogonium is diploid and with 46 chromosomes.

2. Growth phase

Some of the spermatogonia stop dividing and grow in size to develop into primary spermatocyte (2n) due to accumulation of food.

3. Maturation phase

It involves meiotic or reduction division. The spermatocyte undergoes the first phase of meiotic division ( meiosis 1) leading to the formation of two haploid cells called secondary spermatocytes (n); which are 23 chromosomes each. The secondary spermatocytes undergo the second phase of meiotic division(meiosis 2) to produce four haploid spermatids.

The spermatid is no motile and non-functional it gets transformed into functional spermatozoa by the process of called spermiogenesis.

Bottom line

You should know this and have a good knowledge of it. Because it is important in womens life.

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